Tnpsc group 1, 2, 4 syllabus material Nature of Universal Part-8


A galaxy is a large collection of stars or cluster of stars and celestial bodies held together by gravitational attraction. There are about billions of galaxies in the universe. Most galaxies range from thousand to ten thousand parsec in diameter. As we have different types of houses in a locality, the galaxies are also of different types.

Types of galaxies

There are various types of galaxies such as spiral, elliptical, barred spiral and irregular

Spiral Galaxy

Spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge. These are often surrounded by a much fainter halo of stars. Spiral galaxies are named by their spiral structures that extend from the center into the galactic disc.

The spiral arms are sites of ongoing star formation and are brighter than the surrounding disc because of the young, hot stars that inhabit them.

Elliptical Galaxy

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth image. Unlike flat spiral galaxies with organization and structure, elliptical galaxies are three-dimensional, without much structure, and their stars are in somewhat random orbits around the center.

Interestingly Stars found inside of elliptical galaxies are on an average much older than stars found in spiral galaxies. Elliptical galaxies tend to be surrounded by large numbers of globular clusters.

Irregular Galaxy

An irregular galaxy is a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape, unlike a spiral or an elliptical galaxy, they are often chaotic in appearance, with neither a nuclear bulge nor any trace of spiral arm structure. About one forth of the galaxies found so far are of this type.

Cosmologists say that some irregular galaxies were once spiral or elliptical galaxies but were deformed by an uneven external gravitational force. Irregular galaxies may contain abundant amounts of gas and dust.

Barred Spiral

A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of Stars. Bars are found in approximately in two-thirds to one third of all spiral galaxies.The Milky Way Galaxy, where our own Solar System is located, is classified as a barred spiral galaxy.


Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy in which our solar system is located. The diameter of Milky Way is over 100,000 light years. The Milky Way includes stars smaller than our Sun as well as many other stars that are thousands of times bigger than the Sun. It includes many other celestial bodies of gases, clouds of dust, dead stars, newly born stars, etc.

It is also thought to contain at least 100 billion stars. The galaxy that is closest to our Milky Way is Andromeda. The descriptive “milky” is derived from the appearance from Earth of the galaxy – a band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye. In Indian mythology, this patch called as Akasha Ganga. From the Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within.

Galileo Galili first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610. Until the early 1920s, most astronomers thought that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the Universe. Observations by Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies. The Milky Way does not sit still, but is constantly rotating.

Our solar system is located within the disk of the galaxy, about 27,000 light years away from the centre of the galaxy. The solar system travels at an average speed of 828,000 km/h. Even at this rapid speed, the solar system would take about 230 million years to travel all the way around the Milky Way. When the solar system was in the same spot as it is now, there were no humans, no Himalayan mountain on Earth and the dinosaurs were roaming around the Earth.

Tucked inside the very center of the galaxy is a monstrous black hole, billions of times as massive as the sun. Although, black holes cannot be directly viewed, scientists can see their gravitational effects as they change and distort the paths of the material around it, most galaxies, like our milkyway, are thought to have a black hole in their heart.


A constellation is a recognizable pattern of stars in the night sky when viewed from the Earth. International Astronomical Union has classified 88 constellations to cover the entire celestial sphere. Many of the old constellations have Greek or Latin names and are often named after mythological characters.

Ursa Major (Saptha Rishi Mandalam) is a large constellation and it covers a large part of the sky. The most striking feature of this constellation is a group of seven bright stars known as big dipper (seven Sages in Indian astronomy).

Ursa Minor in Lattin means ‘the little bear’ it lies in the northern sky. The Pole star – Polaris (Dhrua) lies within this constellation. The main group, ‘little dipper’, consists of seven stars and is quite similar to that found in Ursa Major.

Orion was a hunter in Greek mythology. The constellation comprises around 81 stars out of which all but 10 are too faint to be seen with naked eye.

Different constellations become visible in the sky at different times in the year. This happens due to the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Unlike galaxy, constellations are mere optical appearance and not real objects.

In galaxy stars are bound by gravity and constitute a system. In a constellation, one star may be near and another very very far, but because they are in the same direction appear to be near to each other in the sky.


A Star is a luminous heavenly body that radiate energy. With naked eyes, we can see nearly 3000 stars in the night sky and many more with the help of a telescope. The stars are remotely located and appear as tiny dots of light. Their light travels long distances to reach us. The atmosphere disturbances do not allow light to reach us in a straight line path. Because of this the stars appear to twinkle. The Sun is the nearest star to the Earth. The next nearest star is Alpha Centauri.


10 std tamil study material

அன்னை மொழியே 

இரட்டுற மொழிதல் 

காற்றே வா




பெருமாள் திருமொழி 


நீதி வெண்பா 



முத்துக்குமாரசாமி பிள்ளைத்தமிழ் கம்பராமாயணம் 

ஏர் புதிதா ? 







9 std tamil study material


தமிழ்விடு தூது 





ஓ , என் சமகாலத் தோழர்களே


குடும்ப விளக்கு 


இராவண காவியம்

நாச்சியார் திருமொழி 

சீவக சிந்தாமணி 



ஒளியின் அழைப்பு 

தாவோ தே ஜிங் 

யசோதர காவியம் 



8 std tamil study material

தமிழ்மொழி வாழ்த்து 

தமிழ்மொழி மரபு 


கோணக்காத்தும் பாட்டு 

நோயும் மருந்தும் 

வருமுன் காப்போம் 

கல்வி அழகே அழகு 

புத்தியைத் தீட்டு 


பாடறிந்து ஒழுகுதல் 

வளம் பெருகுக 


படை வேழம் 

விடுதலைத் திருநாள் 

ஒன்றே குலம் 

மெய்ஞ்ஞான ஒளி 


இளைய தோழனுக்கு

7 std tamil study material

எங்கள் தமிழ் 

ஒன்றல்ல இரண்டல்ல 


புலிதங்கிய குகை 

கலங்கரை விளக்கம் 

இன்பத்தமிழ்க் கல்லி 

ஒரு வேண்டுகோள் 


வயலும் வாழ்வும் 

புதுமை விளக்கு 

அறம் என்னும் கதிர் 


6 std tamil study material


அறிவியல் ஆள்வோம் 


துன்பம் வெல்லும் கல்வி 

ஆசாரக் கோவை 

கண்மணியே கண்ணுறங்கு 

நானிலம் படைத்தவன் 

கடலோடு விளையாடு 


Ration and proportional



Number series

L.C.M and H.C.F

Simple Interest

Compound Interest


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