Tnpsc group 1, 2, 4 syllabus material Nature of Universal Part-6

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

NASA is the most popular space agency whose headquarters is located at Washington, USA. It was established on 1st October 1958. It has 10 field centers, which provide a major role in the execution of NASA’s work. NASA is supporting International Space Station which is an international collaborative work on space research.

It has landed rovers on Mars, analysed the atmosphere of Jupiter, explored Saturn and Mercury. The Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs helped NASA learn more about flying in space. NASA’s robotic space probes have visited every planet in the solar system. Satellites launched by NASA have revealed a wealth of data about Earth, resulting in valuable information such as a better understanding of weather patterns. NASA technology has contributed to make many items used in everyday life, from smoke detectors to medical tests.

Apollo Mission

Apollo Missions are the most popular missions of NASA. These missions made American Astronauts to land on the Moon. It consists of totally 17 missions. Among them Apollo -8 and Apollo-11 are more remarkable. Apollo-8 was the first manned mission to go to the Moon. It orbited around the Moon and came back to the Earth. Apollo-11 was the first ‘Man Landing Mission’ to the moon. It landed on the Moon on 20th July 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the surface of the Moon.

NASA’s work with ISRO

NASA made an agreement to work with ISRO to launch the NISAR Satellite (NASA[1]ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Mars Exploration Missions.

Work of Indians at NASA

People of Indian origin in America are working in NASA and they have made remarkable contribution to NASA. Kalpana Chawla Kalpana Chawla was born on 17th March 1962 in Karnal, Punjab. In 1988, she joined the NASA. She was selected to take part in the Colombia Shuttle Mission in 1997 and she became the first Indian women astronaut to go to space. On her second mission on the Colombia Shuttle, she lost her life, when the shuttle broke down.

Nature of Universal

Sunitha Williams

Sunitha Williams was born on 19th September 1965 in USA. She started her career as an astronaut in August 1998. She made two trips to the International Space Station. She set a record of the longest space walking time by a female astronaut in 2012, with a total space walk of 50 hour and 40 minute (7 space walks). She is one of the crew of NASA’s Manned Mars Mission.

Points to Remember

The solar system, the stars and the galaxies are the constituents of the universe.

A rocket is a vehicle, which propels itself by ejecting a part of its mass.

The PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) rockets are India’s popular rockets.

A propellant is a chemical substance that can undergo combustion to produce pressurized gases whose energy is utilized to move a rocket against the gravitational force of attraction.

The propellants may be in the form of a solid or liquid.

In cryogenic propellant the fuel or oxidizer or both are liquefied gases and they are stored at a very low temperature.

Our country launched Chandrayaan-1 (Satellite to the Moon) on 22nd October 2008 to study about the Moon. The word Chandrayaan means ‘Moon vehicle’.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is the second smallest planet in the solar system.

After the successful launch of Chandrayaan-1, ISRO planned an unmanned mission to Mars (Mars Orbiter Mission) and launched a space probe (Space vehicle) on 5th November 2013 to orbit ‘Mars’.

Mars Orbiter Mission is India’s first interplanetary mission.

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is the most popular space agency whose headquarters is located at Washington, USA.

Apollo Missions are the most popular missions of NASA. These missions made American Astronauts to land on the Moon.

Apollo-8 was the first manned mission to go to the Moon.

Apollo-11 was the first ‘Man Landing Mission’ to the moon.

More to know

The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. It is at a mean distance of about 3,84,400 km from the Earth. Its diameter is 3,474 km. It has no atmosphere of its own. It doesn’t have its own light, but it reflects the sunlight. The time period of rotation of the Moon about its own axis is equal to the time period of revolution around the Earth. That’s why we are always seeing its one side alone.

The members present in the crew during the Man Landing Mission were Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins.

Kalpana Chawla travelled over 10.4 million miles in 252 orbits of the earth, logging more than 372 hours in space.

Cryogenic Study of very low temperature.

Galaxy System of millions of stars.

Geological Study of earth’s physical structure and substance.

Mineralogy Scientific study of minerals.

Payload Satellites kept in the launching rockets.

Propellant Fuel or explosive substance.

Space probe Vehicle sent into space to study the planets.

Universe All existing matter and space


10 std tamil study material

அன்னை மொழியே 

இரட்டுற மொழிதல் 

காற்றே வா




பெருமாள் திருமொழி 


நீதி வெண்பா 



முத்துக்குமாரசாமி பிள்ளைத்தமிழ் கம்பராமாயணம் 

ஏர் புதிதா ? 







9 std tamil study material


தமிழ்விடு தூது 





ஓ , என் சமகாலத் தோழர்களே


குடும்ப விளக்கு 


இராவண காவியம்

நாச்சியார் திருமொழி 

சீவக சிந்தாமணி 



ஒளியின் அழைப்பு 

தாவோ தே ஜிங் 

யசோதர காவியம் 



8 std tamil study material

தமிழ்மொழி வாழ்த்து 

தமிழ்மொழி மரபு 


கோணக்காத்தும் பாட்டு 

நோயும் மருந்தும் 

வருமுன் காப்போம் 

கல்வி அழகே அழகு 

புத்தியைத் தீட்டு 


பாடறிந்து ஒழுகுதல் 

வளம் பெருகுக 


படை வேழம் 

விடுதலைத் திருநாள் 

ஒன்றே குலம் 

மெய்ஞ்ஞான ஒளி 


இளைய தோழனுக்கு

7 std tamil study material

எங்கள் தமிழ் 

ஒன்றல்ல இரண்டல்ல 


புலிதங்கிய குகை 

கலங்கரை விளக்கம் 

இன்பத்தமிழ்க் கல்லி 

ஒரு வேண்டுகோள் 


வயலும் வாழ்வும் 

புதுமை விளக்கு 

அறம் என்னும் கதிர் 


6 std tamil study material


அறிவியல் ஆள்வோம் 


துன்பம் வெல்லும் கல்வி 

ஆசாரக் கோவை 

கண்மணியே கண்ணுறங்கு 

நானிலம் படைத்தவன் 

கடலோடு விளையாடு 


Ration and proportional



Number series

L.C.M and H.C.F

Simple Interest

Compound Interest


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