Tnpsc group 1, 2, 4 syllabus material Nature of Universal Part – 5

India’s Space Programmes

Soon after independence, India initiated space research activities. In 1969, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was formed with the objective of developing space technology and its application for different needs of the nation. India is focusing on satellites for communication and remote.

Chandrayaan – 1

Our country launched a satellite Chandrayaan-1 (meaning Moon vehicle) on 22nd October 2008 to study about the Moon. It was launched from Sathish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh with the help of PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket. It was put into the lunar orbit on 8th November 2008.

The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface. It collected the chemical, the mineralogical and the geological information about the Moon. This mission was a major boost for the Indian space programs and helped to develop its own technology to explore the Moon.

Chandrayaan-1 was operated for 312 days and achieved 95% of its objectives. The scientists lost their communication with the space craft on 28th August 2009. On the successful completion of all the major objectives, the mission was concluded.

Objectives of Chandrayaan-1

The following are the objectives of Chandrayaan – 1 mission.

To find the possibility of water on the Moon.

To find the elements of matter on the Moon.

To search for the existence of Helium-3.

To make a 3-dimensional atlas of the Moon.

To study about the evolution of the solar system.

Achievements of Chandrayaan-1

The following are the achievements of Chandrayaan-1 mission.

The discovery of presence of water molecules in the lunar soil.

Chandrayaan-1 confirmed that the Moon was completely molten once.

Chandrayaan-1 has recorded images of the landing site of the US space-craft Apollo-15 and Apollo-11

It has provided high-resolution spectral data on the mineralogy of the Moon.

The existence of aluminium, magnesium and silicon were picked up by the X-ray camera.

More than 40,000 images have been transmitted by the Chandrayaan-1 camera in 75 days.

The acquired images of peaks and craters show that the Moon mostly consists of craters.

Chandrayaan-1 beamed back its first images of the Earth in its entirety.

Chandrayaan-1 has discovered large caves on the lunar surface that can act as human shelter on the Moon.

Mangalyaan (Mars vehicle)

After the successful launch of Chandrayaan-1, ISRO planned an unmanned mission to Mars (Mars Orbiter Mission) and launched a space probe (space vehicle) on 5th November 2013 to orbit Mars orbit. This probe was launched by the PSLV Rocket from Sriharikota, Andra pradesh. Mars Orbiter Mission is India’s first interplanetary mission. By launching Mangalyaan, ISRO became the fourth space agency to reach Mars.

Mangalyaan probe traveled for about a month in Earth’s orbit, and then it was moved to the orbit of Mars by a series of projections. It was successfully placed in the Mars-orbit on 24th September 2014 Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) successfully completed a period of 3 years in the Martian orbit and continues to work as expected. ISRO has released the scientific data received from the Mangalyaan in the past two years (up to September 2016)

Chandrayaan – 2

ISRO has currently launched a follow on mission to Chandrayaan-1 named as Chandrayaan-2, on 22nd July 2019. Chandrayaan-2 mission is highly complex mission compared to previous missions of ISRO. It brought together an Orbiter, Lander and Rover. It aims to explore South Pole of the Moon because the surface area of the South Pole remines in shadow much larger than that of North Pole.


It revolves around the moon and it is capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Bylalu as well as Vikram Lander.


It is named as Vikram in the memory of Dr.Vikram A. Sarabhai, the father of Indian space program.


It is a six wheeled robotic vehicle named as ‘Pragyan’ (Sanskrit word) that means wisdom. Chandrayaan-2 was successfully inserted into the lunar orbit on 20th August 2019. In the final tage of the mission, just 2.1 km above the lunar surface, Lander ‘Vikram’ lost its communication with the ground station on 7th September 2019. But the Orbiter continues its work successfully.


Kalam Sat is the world’s smallest satellite weighing only 64 gram. It was built by a team of high school students, led by Rifath Sharook, an 18 year old school student from ‘Pallapatti’ near Karur, Tamil Nadu. It was launched into the space on 22nd June 2017 by NASA.

Know your Scientist

Dr. Mylsamy Annadurai was born on 2nd July 1958, at Kodhavadi, a small village near Pollachi in Coimbatore district. He pursued his B.E. degree course at Government College of Technology, Coimbatore. In 1982, he pursued his higher education and acquired an M.E. degree at PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore. In the same year he joined the ISRO as a scientist. And later, he got his doctorate degree from Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore. Annadurai is a leading technologist in the field of satellite system. He has served as the Project Director of Chandrayaan-1. He has also made significant contributions to the cost effective design of Chandrayaan.


10 std tamil study material

அன்னை மொழியே 

இரட்டுற மொழிதல் 

காற்றே வா




பெருமாள் திருமொழி 


நீதி வெண்பா 



முத்துக்குமாரசாமி பிள்ளைத்தமிழ் கம்பராமாயணம் 

ஏர் புதிதா ? 







9 std tamil study material


தமிழ்விடு தூது 





ஓ , என் சமகாலத் தோழர்களே


குடும்ப விளக்கு 


இராவண காவியம்

நாச்சியார் திருமொழி 

சீவக சிந்தாமணி 



ஒளியின் அழைப்பு 

தாவோ தே ஜிங் 

யசோதர காவியம் 



8 std tamil study material

தமிழ்மொழி வாழ்த்து 

தமிழ்மொழி மரபு 


கோணக்காத்தும் பாட்டு 

நோயும் மருந்தும் 

வருமுன் காப்போம் 

கல்வி அழகே அழகு 

புத்தியைத் தீட்டு 


பாடறிந்து ஒழுகுதல் 

வளம் பெருகுக 


படை வேழம் 

விடுதலைத் திருநாள் 

ஒன்றே குலம் 

மெய்ஞ்ஞான ஒளி 


இளைய தோழனுக்கு

7 std tamil study material

எங்கள் தமிழ் 

ஒன்றல்ல இரண்டல்ல 


புலிதங்கிய குகை 

கலங்கரை விளக்கம் 

இன்பத்தமிழ்க் கல்லி 

ஒரு வேண்டுகோள் 


வயலும் வாழ்வும் 

புதுமை விளக்கு 

அறம் என்னும் கதிர் 


6 std tamil study material


அறிவியல் ஆள்வோம் 


துன்பம் வெல்லும் கல்வி 

ஆசாரக் கோவை 

கண்மணியே கண்ணுறங்கு 

நானிலம் படைத்தவன் 

கடலோடு விளையாடு 


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